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Пашня.

Полезные ссылки.

Пашня.
Крин.
Крин.

Иностранные ресурсы

Весь англоязычный интернет является полезным ресурсом, из недавних встреч мне понравился сайт

English Grammar

Grammar lessons, exercises, and rules for everyday use

http://www.englishgrammar.org/

много интересных и полезных материалов.


Один из интересных наборов ссылок составила и вела, а может ведёт и сейчас, активистка группы новостей alt.english.usage, Donna Richoux:

Last Revised 2002-08-12 (12 Aug 2002)

Useful Web Sites for AUE Participants

Where to find previous postings
Where to learn about ASCII IPA
Learning English as a Foreign Language
Audio Archives
Word lists
On-line dictionaries: general
On-line dictionaries: Historical and Special Purpose
Acronyms and abbreviations
Sites on words and language
Writing and Grammar Guides On Line
Encyclopedias & Search Engines
British English
Black English (African-American Vernacular English, Ebonics)
Historical English, and English Literature


Where to find previous postings

If you suspect your topic has already been discussed, even though it is not in the FAQ, please check for articles, following the appropriate search guidelines, at the Google Usenet archive, which holds articles since 1995:
http://groups.google.com/advanced_group_search

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Where to learn about ASCII IPA

ASCII IPA is a way of expressing pronunciation on Usenet. It is a version of the International Phonetic Alphabet, using only the ASCII symbols (basic keyboard characters). There's a guide to ASCII IPA, including illustrative sound files, at
http://www.alt-usage-english.org/ascii_ipa_choice.html

A detailed specification of the ASCII IPA transcriptions scheme, including tables showing the mapping to and from IPA characters, can be found at
http://www.kirshenbaum.net/IPA/ascii-ipa.pdf

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Learning English as a Foreign Language

Good entry points to the many resources on the Web are:

English as a Second Language
http://www.rong-chang.com/

Dave's ESL Cafe
http://www.eslcafe.com/

The Taiwan Teacher
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Delphi/1979/links.html

English as 2nd Language
http://esl.about.com/?once=true&

ELTWEB
http://www.eltweb.com/

ESL Resources at Purdue University - covers common grammar issues
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/esl/

See also "Writing and Grammar Guides On Line," below.

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Audio Archives

The a.u.e Audio Archive -- Listen to sound files of speakers from England, Cornwall, Canada, Ireland, and the US saying 'Bother, Father caught hot coffee in the car park' and other examples of differing accents.
Reach via .

IDEA, the International Dialects of English Archive -- Large collection of MP3 speech files from around the world.
http://www.ukans.edu/~idea/

Fonetiks -- sound clips of 6 kinds of English plus 9 other languages
http://www.fonetiks.org/

Pronunciation Voice of America - 3000 soundfiles of placenames & people
http://ibb7.ibb.gov/pronunciations/

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Word lists

Brian Kelk maintains a Web page with pointers to numerous wordlists on the net - for UK English, US English and a number of other languages. Many are bare lists of words but some have other info. There is also information on word and letter frequency and on phonetic alphabets (Alpha Bravo). The page has recently moved to:
http://www.bckelk.uklinux.net/menu.html

The Moby Project has large downloadable lists of words: Hyphenator, 5-Language, Parts-of-Speech, Pronunciator (American), Shakespeare, Thesaurus, and American Words.
http://www.dcs.shef.ac.uk/research/ilash/Moby/

The National Puzzlers' League provides a search engine for words listed in a number of dictionaries (including W2 and SOED):
http://www.puzzlers.org/secure/wordlists/grepdict.html

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On-line dictionaries: General

Please look up simple questions of meaning and origin in a dictionary before posting to the group. There are now several large, recent dictionaries on-line to choose from.

Merriam-Webster Collegiate, 10th Edition, 1994. With US pronunciations.
http://www.m-w.com/netdict.htm

Onelook, which searches over 500 dictionaries at a single stroke.
http://www.onelook.com/

Dictionary.com, based on theAmerican Heritage Dictionary
http://www.dictionary.com/

Cambridge International Dictionary, also Idioms & Phrasal Verbs
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/

American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms
http://xrefer.com/

Encarta World English Dictionary
http://dictionary.msn.com/

Macquarie Dictionary (Australian)
http://www.macquariedictionary.com.au/

Random House Webster's College Dictionary (no etymology)
http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopdict.html

The Web of On-line Dictionaries, with links to many bilingual, slang, hobby, science, etc, dictionaries:
http://www.yourdictionary.com/

Xrefer.com, with over 50 specialty dictionaries including slang, idiom, placenames, and quotations. Many are Oxford publications.
http://www.xrefer.com/

Word Net - includes "X is a kind of..." and "X consists of..."
http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/~wn

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On-line dictionaries: Historical and Special Purpose

Webster's 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language
http://www.christiantech.com/

Webster's 1913 Revised Unabridged Dictionary
http://humanities.uchicago.edu/forms_unrest/webster.form.html

The Century Dictionary, 1914 (12 volumes scanned):
http://www.global-language.com/century/

The Oxford English Dictionary is available for a subscription fee:
http://oed.com

Hobson-Jobson:Anglo-Indian Glossary, 1903
http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/hobsonjobson/

The Jargon Lexicon - on computer and hi-tech terms
http://www.tuxedo.org/~esr/jargon/html/The-Jargon-Lexicon.html

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Acronyms and abbreviations

Onelook (above) finds many initialisms. Two other searchable databases are:

http://www.ucc.ie/info/net/acronyms/acro.html

http://www.AcronymFinder.com/

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Sites on words and language

The a.u.e webmaster has arranged to link the indexes of many of these sites. Enter your search word once at the AUE Website and get links to each place the term is discussed.
http://www.alt-usage-english.org/

The Maven's Word of the Day (formerly Jesse's) A dictionary editor answers word questions. Large archive.
http://www.randomhouse.com/wotd/

Common Errors in English -- Tips on hundreds of confusing words and pairs such as affect/effect, adapt/adopt, advice/advise, etc.
http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/errors/errors.html

Michael Quinion, World Wide Words -- Discusses new words and the reappearance of old ones. Q&A section.
http://www.worldwidewords.org/

Evan Morris,The Word Detective -- Answers questions on origins of colorful words and phrases. Large archive.
http://www.word-detective.com

John Lawler -- A linguistics professor gives masterful explanations of how language really works
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jlawler/aue.html

sci.lang FAQ -- language and linguistics questions commonly asked
http://www.zompist.com/langfaq.html

Take Our Word -- the Weekly Word-origin Webzine
http://takeourword.com/

Dave Wilton's Etymology Page
http://www.wordorigins.org/

Etymology Online
http://www.geocities.com/etymonline/

Sharp Points by Bill Walsh -- real-life copy editing dilemmas
http://www.theslot.com/sharp.html

Atlas of North American English -- Maps and articles on regional dialects in the US. Knowledge of basic linguistics advised.
http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/

Word2Word -- links to dictionaries, translators, language sites, etc.
http://www.word2word.com/dictionary.html

Fun with Words -- unusual words, lists of oddities, etc.
http://rinkworks.com/words/

Word Ways: The Journal of Recreational Linguistics
http://www.wordways.com/

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Writing and Grammar Guides On Line

Grammar and Style Notes by Jack Lynch
http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Writing/

Handbook of Style, by Merriam-Webster, Inc.
http://www.mae.ucsd.edu/mw/hanstyle.html

Guide to Grammar and Writing, by Charles Darling
http://ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/index2.htm

The Online English Grammar, by Anthony Hughes
http://www.edufind.com/english/grammar/toc.cfm

Verbix -- conjugate any English verb; other languages, too.
http://www.verbix.com/languages/english.shtml

Two style guides for British publications:
http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/styleguide/
http://www.economist.com/library/styleGuide/

Basics of diagramming sentences
http://www.utexas.edu/courses/langling/e360k/handouts/diagrams/

Xrefer -- two British style guides: The Oxford Companion to the English Language, and The New Fowler's Modern English Usage
http://www.xrefer.com/

Bartleby -- two US style guides: American Heritage Book of English Usage, and Strunk's Elements of Style (1916 edition)
http://www.bartleby.com/

The Internet Grammar of English: modern grammar (word classes, etc.)
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/

The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/

The Plain English Campaign: guides to writing letters, reports, etc.
http://www.plainenglish.co.uk/freepub.html

Garbl's Writing Resources On Line: A descriptive list of links about writing, and a style manual
http://garbl.home.attbi.com/

Yahoo! Grammar & Usage -- A long list of sites.
http://dir.yahoo.com/Social_Science/Linguistics_and_Human_Languages/Lang uages/Specific_Languages/English/Grammar__Usage__and_Style/

Zuzu's Petals Literary Resource: A large and well-maintained collection of links on every aspect of writing. Look here to find style guides, copyright laws, and much more.
http://www.zuzu.com/homelink.htm

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Encyclopedias & Search Engines

Sometimes, language questions are tied closely to history, science, geography, and other factual matters. Web search engines such as MetaCrawler, Google, and many others can help. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. For a list of 21 major search engines , go to:
http://searchenginewatch.internet.com/links/Major_Search_Engines/The_Major_Search_Engines/index.html

There are also on-line encyclopedias and "reference books":

Bartleby -- search two dozen reference works simultaneously, both recent and older. Includes Columbia Encyclopedia and quotation guides.
http://www.bartleby.com/

Encarta encyclopedia
http://encarta.msn.com/default.asp

Refdesk - many references linked to a single home page
http://www.refdesk.com/

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British English

The American-British British-American Dictionary
http://www.peak.org/~jeremy/dictionary/

Estuary English - recent developments in England
http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/estuary/home.htm

The Best of British
http://www.effingpot.com/

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Black English (African-American Vernacular English, Ebonics)

African American Vernacular English (Ebonics) by Jack Sidnell
http://www.une.edu.au/langnet/aave.htm

The Center for Applied Linguistics: Ebonics Information Page
http://www.cal.org/ebonics/

John Lawler on Ebonics: a statement by linguists, bibliography & links:
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jlawler/ebonics.lsa.html

African-American History and Culture
http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/blackga.htm

Characteristic Features of AAVE
http://www.hf.ntnu.no/engelsk/staff/johannesson/111sos/L09-O04.htm

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Historical English, and English Literature

Word Safari: Megalist of Word Links -- History Section: A good starting point with links to a number of sites on the development, grammar, pronunciation, and literature of Old English or Anglo-Saxon (example, Beowulf) and Middle English (example, Chaucer).
http://home.earthlink.net/~ruthpett/safari/megalist.htm#Jump3

I have not yet found a good site about "Early Modern English," but you can use these two sites to search for your own usage examples:

Search Shakespeare sites
http://www.rhymezone.com/shakespeare/help/
http://the-tech.mit.edu/Shakespeare/ (search single plays only)

Bible Gateway - Search the Bible (King James and other versions)
http://bible.gospelcom.net/

A brief page on "Thou, Thee & Archaic Grammar" is now in the Grammar section of the AUE FAQ Supplement:
http://www.alt-usage-english.org/pronoun_paradigms.html

Sites for "Modern English" literature from 1700-2000:

Bibliomania - search many classic novels and essays simultaneously.
http://www.bibliomania.com/

Mastertexts - another quick-search site
http://www.bibliomania.com/

The On-Line Books Page -- thousands of works of literature that are available for free download & search. Includes Project Gutenberg titles.
http://digital.library.upenn.edu/books/

Collins Cobuild Corpus Concordance Sampler - search for recent usages
http://titania.cobuild.collins.co.uk/form.html

This series of seven "Intro Documents" is intended to aid newcomers to the newsgroup. The articles are posted frequently here, and are also on the Web for your convenience, at:
http://www.alt-usage-english.org/

At that site, you will also find our full FAQ and other helpful information.

Comments and corrections to these Intro documents should be emailed to me.
Donna Richoux

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